Alprazolam is prescribed for management of anxiety disorder associated with depression and panic disorder. It improves mood, relieves cramps, and helps in insomnia with premenstrual syndrome.
The route of administration of azithromycin is by mouth. It may be given without regard to mealsand tablets may be crushed. It is contraindicated to patients who have acute angle glaucoma and acute alcohol intoxication. Upon getting the baseline assessment, one must offer emotional support to anxious patients. Motor responses such as agitation, tension and trembling, as well as autonomic responses such as cold, clammy hands and sweating should be thoroughly assessed.
One must be cautious if the patient has impaired renal or hepatic function since this drug is metabolized in the liver and excreted in the urine. Alprazolam crosses the placenta and distributed in breast milk. Withdrawal symptoms may be evident if chronic amount is ingested during pregnancy. It may also cause CNS depressants to neonates. This drug causes definite human fetal risks but benefits of use in pregnant women. Thus, it may be acceptable despite risks.
Taking alprazolam may cause potentiated effectswhen used at the same time with other CNS depressants such as alcohol. Besides, it may be the reason for any alteration in the patient’s laboratory results. It may produce abnormal function tests, elevate SGOT (AST), SGPT (ALT), LDH, alkaline phosphatise and serum bilirubin. Therefore, it is very important to evaluate the liver or renal function tests as well as blood counts of the patient for those on long term therapy. Paradoxical effects should be assessed particularly during early therapy. Also, it is necessary to evaluate therapeutic response such as a calm facial expression, decreased restlessness and insomnia.
Common side effects of alprazolam include drowsiness or light-headedness, dry mouth, headache, constipation or diarrhea. One may assist the patent with ambulation if drowsiness or light-headedness occurs. Upon changing patient’s position, it should be done slowly from recumbent to sitting position before standing. Tasks that require alertness and motor skills should be avoided until response to the drug is established. Sour and hard candy, chewing gum, or sips of tepid water may help relieve dry mouth. Encourage patient to increase fluid intake to manage constipation and prevent dehydration because of diarrhea. Occasionally, the person may experience nausea, confusion, insomnia, tachycardia, palpitations, nasal congestion and blurred vision after taking the drug. In rare cases, paradoxical CNS excitement or restlessness in elderly or debilitated is generally noted during the first 2 weeks of therapy, particularly in the presence of pain.
Abrupt or too-rapid withdrawal from alprazolam may result in restlessness, irritability, hand tremors, insomnia, abdominal or muscle cramps, sweating, vomiting and seizures. Thus, avoid abruptly withdrawing medication after long term therapy. Over dosage may result in somnolence, confusion, diminished reflexes and even coma. Taking this medication should be in accordance to the doctor’s prescription. Also, taking other drugs may not be safe and requires consultation from the doctor. Smoking reduces drug effectiveness and therefore should be avoided.